Different types of heart diseases and their impact on the body
Due to the fact that there are a large number of heart diseases of different severity, the consequences of this disease for the patient may be different.
Clinical manifestations all defects can be divided into three main groups:
Heart disease, which can lead to reduced pumping function of the heart
Blue heart defects (cyanosis).
Heart disease without symptoms.
Anatomically possible to distinguish four types of violations:
Defects (holes) of partitions that separate right and left chambers of the heart from each other.
Narrowing of the valves or major blood vessels.
The anomalous position of the large vessels (aorta, pulmonary artery, inferior or superior Vena cava), the cavities of the heart or the heart.
Malformations of the heart cavities or blood vessels, when they are too small or non-existent.
Different combinationsof these elements give rise to great diversity of known heart disease, while some combinations are particularly common. The purpose of this booklet is not to list all the existing defects of the heart and to describe them. We present examples of the most common vices.
In order to understand the mechanisms of heart disease, we must first be acquainted with the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Figure 1 shows a normal heart consists of four chambers. Blood comes out of the systemic circulation into the right atrium, and from the small circle in the left hand. From the Atria, the blood enters the ventricles, which act as powerful pumps. The right ventricle sends deoxygenated blood (venous blood drawings depicted in blue) to the lungs where it is oxygenated and where it comes into the left atrium. The left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood into the systemic circulation.
Figure 1. Normal anatomy of the heart
The right atrium
2 the Right ventricle
3 Pulmonary artery, by which venous blood enters the lungs
4 the Left atrium
5 the Left ventricle
6 the Aorta through which arterial blood flows into the vessels of the systemic circulation
The septal defects of the heart and major blood vessels
Ventricular septal defect
Figure 2 shows one of the most common heart defects, manifested by the development of heart failure. When there is communication between glucochemists (a hole in the interventricular septum). In this situation, oxygen-rich blood flows through the hole from the left ventricle into the right, from area of higher pressure to an area of low.
Figure 2. Ventricular septal defect
Oxygen-rich blood discharged from the left to the right ventricle (where a lower pressure) is mixed with venous blood returns to the lungs.
In most cases, the hole is too small, and through him, little blood is discharged, and the patient feels nothing. If the defect in the septum is greater, through him, bypassing the right ventricle, a lot of oxygen-rich blood is flushed into the lungs. This leads to fatigue of the heart muscle and the development of heart failure. Fortunately, these openings have a tendency over time be reduced or even closed completely. If there is a hole that does not cause anxiety to the patient, need surgery no. It is important to note that during the whole of life should be the prevention of endocarditis .
Atrial septal defect Risunok illustrates this common heart defect. Here oxygen-rich blood discharged from the left into the right atrium. The pressure in the Atria is small, so is discharged through the defect less amount of blood than in the case of ventricular septal defect. For this reason, heart failure develops, therefore, is the childhood defect remains undetected. Symptoms often occur only in adults in the form of shortness of breath during physical exertion or heart rhythm disorders in the form of palpitations and irregular heartbeat. In children with this heart defect is most often recognized by the doctor at listening (auscultation) of the heart. The emergence of signs of overload of the right departments of heart suggests that surgery is required. Today, some defects can be successfully eliminated by using a cardiac catheter inserted into the femoral vein. In this case, the defect is closed with a special prosthesis in the shape of an umbrella (the occluder). If intervention by surgery or catheter delivered in a timely manner and successfully, the need for constant medical care disappears.
Blood, oxygen-rich blood is discharged through the opening in the right atrium and then into the right ventricle, is mixed with venous blood back to the lungs.
Open Arterial duct
In the unborn child of the ductus arteriosus is a normal and vital. It is a short vessel connecting the pulmonary artery and the aorta. Normally, this duct closes itself in the first days after birth. If it remains open, the arterial blood from the aorta (where the pressure is above) may enroll in the pulmonary artery (where pressure is lower). The consequences are exactly the same as in the presence of a ventricular septal defect. Often the duct is closed only partially and the amount of blood passing through it, slightly. Then this heart defect can be asymptomatic for a long time and is found only in older children or adults. In any case, it is important that the ductus arteriosus was closed. This avoids the risk of endocarditis. With a small defect patent arterial duct close procedure is performed using a catheter. If the channel is opened widely and the defect is detected too late, can develop pulmonary hyperten-Zia (blood pressure in the pulmonary artery increases, sometimes even higher than the pressure in the aorta, which is called the syndrome Eisenmenger).
Simple narrowing (stenosis)
Valve stenosis pulmonary artery
The pulmonary valve located at the outlet of the right ventricle is most frequently exposed to the stenosis (figure 4). The narrowing may be of varying degrees. Often it is minor and does not cause any complaints. Except in the most severe cases, even quite pronounced stenosis can be asymptomatic. If the restriction is too great, it must be eliminated.
Figure 4. Valve stenosis pulmonary artery
When this defect occurs, the deformation of the valve of the pulmonary artery and its opening is incomplete, so that only a thin trickle of blood due to the high pressure is pumped into the pulmonary artery.
In most cases, the valve can be expanded in the process of cardiac catheterization (balloon valvuloplasty). After this extension using air tank re-stenosis occurs again only in exceptional cases. And then the procedure can be repeated. Surgery for this defect is rarely needed.
Aortic valve stenosis
This defect often leads to complaints of the patient. Aortic valve is at the exit of the left ventricle (figure 5). Stenosis forms a barrier to blood flow that causes reduced exercise tolerance. And manifests as fatigue or may even lead to loss of consciousness (fainting).
In children, the stenosis of the aortic valve, like the valve of the pulmonary artery, can be reduced without surgery with the help of an expansion cylinder is injected using a catheter. Such a defect in adults usually requires surgery. The valve can be replaced with mechanical or biological prosthesis. After installation, mechanical valves require lifelong therapy to thin the blood, for biological valve there is no need. However, according to current data, the installation of a biological valve leads to a relative decrease in life expectancy. For both types of prostheses necessary to carry out prevention of endocarditis and regular examinations.
Figure 5. Aortic stenosis (aortic stenosis)
Aortic valve is deformed and not fully open. The left ventricle is forced to pump blood through the narrowed aortic valve thin stream under high pressure.
Coarctation of the aorta (stenosis of the aortic isthmus)
It’s actually not a heart defect, a malformation of the aorta. Figure 6 shows that there is a narrowing of the descending aorta below the discharge from vessels that supply blood to the head and upper extremities. Stenosis is the obstruction of blood supply to the lower half of the torso, abdomen and legs. Consequently, the pressure of blood in the head and hands will be higher than the area for obstacles. Some forms of Markt-tion cause severe problems in newborns, while others are very well tolerated and can be detected only in adolescence. Usually the suspicion of this congenital anomaly occurs when increased blood pressure on the hands and lower legs. This anomaly should be corrected, usually by surgery, especially in young patients. If after the operation is re-narrowing of the aorta, it can be eliminated using a balloon catheter. This usually makes it possible to normalize blood pressure. The narrowing may be back in a few years even after successful elimination of heart disease, therefore, requires regular medical follow-up throughout life.
Figure 6. Coarctation of the aorta (stenosis of the aortic isthmus)
After the separation from the aorta of the left brachial artery (subclavian) there is a narrowing of the aortic lumen, reducing blood flow, blood pressure in the upper part of the body grows.