Structural and functional aspects of heart adaptation to physical loads.
The work was performed at the Department of normal anatomy of the Ternopil state medical Academy
In experiment investigated the structural and functional features of the reorganization of the departments of the myocardium of experimental animals with a systematic physical activities. The latter are accompanied by hypertrophy and dilatation, and these processes in the left ventricle. Blood pressure under the effect of physical training decreases, and shifts in the regulation of cardiac muscle in the directionof the predominance of the influence of the vagus nerve.
Keywords: heart, adaptation, physical exercise.
In this experiment it is investiigated structural – functional peculiarities of the reformation of sections of myocardial – experimental animals during dynamic physical loadings. It is ascertained that those are the last accompanied by hypertrophy and dylatation, and the se processes predominate in the left ventricular. Arterial pressure descreases under the influence of physical training and some displacements also take place in regulation of the heart muscle to the prevalence of vagus influence.
Key words: heart, physical loadings, adaptation.
Adequate assessment of the structural and functional features of adaptive changes of the heart during exercise is one of the oldest and by far not studied problems of sports medicine and morphology [1,3,4].
Despite the numerous studies devoted to this problem, the scientific literature and is currently a contradiction in your views on the hypertrophy of heart muscle in athletes and on the functional and morphological changes hypertrophied hearts [3,8].
Given the above, the objective of this work was to study structural and functional features of the restructuring of the divisions of the myocardium of experimental animals during dynamic exercise.
Material and methods research
The experiments were performed on 70 Mature male rats of Wistar line weight 182,0-190,0 g within 2 months swam in water at a temperature of about 30 ° C. one-Time animals stay in the water increased gradually from 3 to 60 minutes. 17 animals of the same sex, age and weight in standard conditions of vivarium, formed the control group.
When studying the functional state of the cardiovascular system measured arterial pressure using plethysmometer apparatus , conducted the recording of electrocardiograms on electrocardiograph EK 2T-02 in 3 leads at a speed of movement of the tape 100 mm / s. thus for the calculation and analysis of various indicators of cardiac rhythm were recorded at least 100 of RR-intervals in the second abstraction .
By the method of variation statistics were determined the mean value of RR intervals (M), mean square deviation ((), variational scale ((X), mode (Mo), the amplitude of the mode (AMO), the coefficients of asymmetry (As) and kurtosis (Ex) . which are widely used to assess the heart rate. The formulas to calculate the tension index (ti) of the regulatory systems, the index of vegetative equilibrium (PSI), the adequacy of the processes of regulation (PAPR), vegetative indicator rhythm .
Euthanasia of animals was performed using rapid decapitation. Heart cut by I. K. Esipova (1981), separately weighed departments of the myocardium was performed planimetry of the endocardial surfaces of the heart , histometric measurement of isolated cardiomyocytes . This takes into account such morphometric parameters: the pure weight of the heart muscle (DIS) is the mass of the heart muscle without valves and major blood vessels, the absolute weight of the left (MLS) and right (MPS) ventricular – ventricular mass is proportional to its mass part of the interventricular septum, ventricular index (W I) – the ratio MPS to MLS, the Fulton index (Interfax) – the ratio of the mass of the left ventricle with the interventricular septum to the mass of the right, cardiac index (SI) is the ratio of kidney to body weight, weight of the left (MLP) and right (WFP) fibrillation, fibrillation index (PI) is the ratio of the MLP to WFP, the mass content of the left and right ventricles and Atria (% LV,% RV,% PL,%