Urgent and long-term adaptation to physical loads
There are two types of adaptation — term and long-term.
Short-term adaptation represents the complex reactions that occur in direct response to the action of the stimulus. It is implemented on the basis of mechanisms, the new programs thus formed. The main distinguishing features of urgent adaptation is on the one hand – substantial consumption of resources and the relatively low efficiency of
the reaction. In other words, short-term adaptation is imperfect. Example, running an untrained person. When this occurs close to the limit activation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the maximum mobilization of glycogen in the liver. Rapid accumulation of lactic acid in the blood limits the intensity of physical activity musculoskeletal reaction can be neither fast enough nor long enough.
At the level of the regulatory systems is intense, excessive stimulation of the motor centers, which corresponds to a significant, but insufficiently coordinated motor activity. Adaptive response is accompanied by generalized involvement of the extra muscle groups. As a result the force and rate of contraction of the mobilized muscle are limited, coordination of muscles not perfect.
At the level of systems of support of urgent adaptation to physical loads observed maximum mobilization of functional reserves of the systems of breathing and circulation, which is wasteful way. Thus, the increase in cardiac output is achieved by increasing your heart rate with a limited increase in power. The increase in pulmonary ventilation is carried out by increasing the frequency, but not the depth of breathing, there is a mismatch between the rate of breathing and movements.
Long-term adaptation ( Slide 9 ) occurs gradually through prolonged or repeated action on the organism of environmental factors. The principal feature of this adaptation is the emergence of new physiological mechanisms and management programmes. Long-term adaptation develops on the basis of multiple urgent implementation of adaptation. As a result of gradual quantitative accumulation appropriate modifications an organism acquires a new quality in a particular field — from unadapted becomes adapted. The result is strength, speed and endurance that were previously unattainable.
Long-term adaptation is characterized by the occurrence in the CNS of new temporary connections, efficiency and effectiveness of the functioning of the endocrine system. In response to the same load does not occur abrupt changes in the body, and the muscular work is accompanied by smaller changes in the life support systems (primarily in the respiratory and cardiovascular). As a result, it becomes possible for a long period of stable and performing physical activities.
In the process of adaptation of the organism exchange rebuilt in the direction of a more economical expenditure of energy at rest and increased power metabolism under conditions of physical stress. This rebuild physiologically more appropriate.
Adaptive changes of energy metabolism are switching from one type of carbohydrate on fat. The leading role is played by hormones: glucocorticoids accelerate the breakdown of protein, activating the conversion of amino acids into glucose, and catecholamines cause the breakdown of adipose tissue and glycogen in the liver, increasing the flow of oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids to the working tissues.